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Health: Overweight and Pathophysiology of fat cells

If there is too much food consumed, the body cannot adequately exploit it, and as a result thereof the nutrients are then stored in the fat cells. Therefore, the size of fat cells increases, the more overweight an adult has. At the same time, the excess weight causes the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors decrease in the so-called adipose tissue.In food intake occurs under normal circumstances the release of the hormone insulin, which is responsible for ensuring that sugar can be absorbed from food into cells and excreted from the bloodstream into the tissues.

This need insulin to the cells to which it has to bind to the insulin receptor. It is this key lock principle leads to the absorption of sugar in the cells. Typical cells absorb sugar, are fat cells. Too frequent and excessive food intake, it may happen that the cells are overstimulated by the constant influence of insulin. As a result, there may be a decrease in the number and the sensitivity of insulin receptors in fatty tissue. Thus, the fat cells respond only poorly to the hormone insulin. By stored fat depots also produces a strong heat insulation.

If you move too little at the same time, it absorbs energy from food, but this can hardly be issued in any significant way.Have a decisive influence certain hormones, physical activity and food intake on the size and number of fat cells. The steroid hormone, for example, increases the charging of the fat cells, while male sex hormones (androgens) reduce the load of the fat cells, without affecting the volume of the cells themselves. Reducing diet and physical exercise decrease the fat cell size. However, the number of fat cells remains constant in contrast to their content of fat. This is crucial for the treatment of obesity and overweight. Long-term success can only promise a fundamental change in lifestyle.

The balance problem

Obesity is primarily an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, what exactly is leading to this disparity?

Firstly, the energy requirements of the organism which is hardly influenced, in some people less. This may be the basal metabolic rate (energy consumption in complete peace) are, which may be lower than in lean people, according to studies. This seems to be genetically determined, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Women and older people have a lower basal metabolic rate than men and young people. In addition, the thermogenesis is lower in the food from burning. This means that is lower than in lean people through the digestive energy consumed and energy for heat production. This may be due to the altered carbohydrate utilization by insulin resistance.

On the other hand, the energy consumption is low. By physical activity can be increased, the energy requirement. The basal metabolic rate is slightly increased in this way, as more muscle is present. Also can be achieved by the intensity of the activity, a high additional power consumption.

By moving and more energy can be consumed as a compensation for energy absorption can be achieved. However, the main problem is overeating. It does not matter whether it is a too high carb or high fat foods. Alcohol promotes weight gain not only high energy but also as an inhibitor of fat burning (fat oxidation).

Health: Overweight Prevention

For the prevention of obesity, it is useful to maintain a normal weight and attention to the life habits and a balanced and complete diet. The need for preventive measures resulting from various findings:

The incidence of obesity in the developed world has become so high that the treatment options are no longer sufficient to provide treatment to all those affected. Therefore, it is the primary goal of prevention, to stabilize the mean body weight at the population level and to strive for an early reduction in weight with a BMI 25 to 30. With a full, balanced diet and regular activity can help prevent obesity and overweight.

With increasing duration and severity of the treatment of the disease of obesity becoming more difficult. In some cases, it is not possible to cure by reducing the body weight on weight-related complications.A healthy, active lifestyle with regular physical activity, regular meals and a low fat, starch and fibre diet is recommended for the prevention of obesity. However, the treatment of overweight and as a result the stabilization and keeping the weight newfound are preventive measures. They prevent a progression of the disease.

Nutrition education

Background information and books on a healthy diet, there are many, but the selection is difficult. Appropriate books and publications should be written by professional societies and bring them closer to simple, everyday way close to the recommendations of a healthy, balanced and nutritious diet.

Weight Management Programs

Long-term results of these programs are crucial for the long-term care concept. The following points should be met:
Since the energy consumption goes back as part of a weight reduction (BMR decreases physiologically), the return to the former way of life and old habits can promote weight gain. Therefore, the energy balance must be adjusted to a constant weight is guaranteed.

A low-fat diet is well suited to prevent re-growth.

The increased physical activity increases energy consumption. While maintaining muscle mass as the weight stabilization may be facilitated and supported.

Regular contact with the team of therapists have a positive effect on long-term weight maintenance, since is motivated repeatedly to maintain the newly learned eating and exercise behaviour.

Involvement in a support group and the support of family, friends and colleagues have a positive effect on the weight stabilization.

Regular weight monitoring (1 time per week) and the self-management to improve and for a long-term effect.

Health: Overweight

Prerequisite for the development of obesity is a positive energy balance, i.e. energy intake is higher than energy expenditure. To cause the formation of three complexes are always involved: Genes, diet and exercise. In the history of humankind, thanks to the evolution it was possible to secure by complex mechanisms, the energy requirements as a prerequisite for survival. For a long time still had to be reckoned with food shortage.

To bridge to low energy consumption, the human organism specialized care to acquire in times of food abundance reserves. In times of scarcity, so he was able to secure the maintenance of body functions. In periods of famine, these reserves were depleted and the body weight dwindled. Conversely, the organism, however, has not developed mechanisms to protect themselves from excessive energy intake. Stay out of starvation today.

Food is available anytime, anywhere in the affluent countries. Therefore, one also speaks of a lifestyle disease that is characterized by increased energy intake. The body weight of those affected increases because they carry more energy in the form of calories than the body can consume. In this case, one speaks of a positive energy balance. At the origin of this positive energy balance, cause three areas are usually involved:

Gene: They regulate energy expenditure (BMR) and energy intake (hunger and satiety). Thus, the predisposition to obesity becoming ill be inherited, but not the disease of obesity

Nutrition: A disturbed eating behavior and food selection, due to too much, too rich, too sweet and is characterized too often lead to increased energy intake.

Movement: In affluent countries, most people suffer from lack of exercise. Especially engineered the everyday and the lack of physical activity to promote a low energy consumption

Factors for a positive energy balance

Saturation mechanisms: when eating fills the stomach. The stomach strain causes nerve impulses that cause satiety. Is eaten too quickly, this satiety too late. Then already more than actually needed food has been consumed.

Psychological factors: Psychological imbalance, such as anger, anxiety, stress, grief, frustration or boredom, and a lack of self-confidence is often the reason for unhealthy eating habits. It can lead to so-called “hunger pangs” or “emotional eating”.