Prerequisite for the development of obesity is a positive energy balance, i.e. energy intake is higher than energy expenditure. To cause the formation of three complexes are always involved: Genes, diet and exercise. In the history of humankind, thanks to the evolution it was possible to secure by complex mechanisms, the energy requirements as a prerequisite for survival. For a long time still had to be reckoned with food shortage.
To bridge to low energy consumption, the human organism specialized care to acquire in times of food abundance reserves. In times of scarcity, so he was able to secure the maintenance of body functions. In periods of famine, these reserves were depleted and the body weight dwindled. Conversely, the organism, however, has not developed mechanisms to protect themselves from excessive energy intake. Stay out of starvation today.
Food is available anytime, anywhere in the affluent countries. Therefore, one also speaks of a lifestyle disease that is characterized by increased energy intake. The body weight of those affected increases because they carry more energy in the form of calories than the body can consume. In this case, one speaks of a positive energy balance. At the origin of this positive energy balance, cause three areas are usually involved:
Gene: They regulate energy expenditure (BMR) and energy intake (hunger and satiety). Thus, the predisposition to obesity becoming ill be inherited, but not the disease of obesity
Nutrition: A disturbed eating behavior and food selection, due to too much, too rich, too sweet and is characterized too often lead to increased energy intake.
Movement: In affluent countries, most people suffer from lack of exercise. Especially engineered the everyday and the lack of physical activity to promote a low energy consumption
Factors for a positive energy balance
Saturation mechanisms: when eating fills the stomach. The stomach strain causes nerve impulses that cause satiety. Is eaten too quickly, this satiety too late. Then already more than actually needed food has been consumed.
Psychological factors: Psychological imbalance, such as anger, anxiety, stress, grief, frustration or boredom, and a lack of self-confidence is often the reason for unhealthy eating habits. It can lead to so-called “hunger pangs” or “emotional eating”.