Health: Overweight and Pathophysiology of fat cells

If there is too much food consumed, the body cannot adequately exploit it, and as a result thereof the nutrients are then stored in the fat cells. Therefore, the size of fat cells increases, the more overweight an adult has. At the same time, the excess weight causes the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors decrease in the so-called adipose tissue.In food intake occurs under normal circumstances the release of the hormone insulin, which is responsible for ensuring that sugar can be absorbed from food into cells and excreted from the bloodstream into the tissues.

This need insulin to the cells to which it has to bind to the insulin receptor. It is this key lock principle leads to the absorption of sugar in the cells. Typical cells absorb sugar, are fat cells. Too frequent and excessive food intake, it may happen that the cells are overstimulated by the constant influence of insulin. As a result, there may be a decrease in the number and the sensitivity of insulin receptors in fatty tissue. Thus, the fat cells respond only poorly to the hormone insulin. By stored fat depots also produces a strong heat insulation.

If you move too little at the same time, it absorbs energy from food, but this can hardly be issued in any significant way.Have a decisive influence certain hormones, physical activity and food intake on the size and number of fat cells. The steroid hormone, for example, increases the charging of the fat cells, while male sex hormones (androgens) reduce the load of the fat cells, without affecting the volume of the cells themselves. Reducing diet and physical exercise decrease the fat cell size. However, the number of fat cells remains constant in contrast to their content of fat. This is crucial for the treatment of obesity and overweight. Long-term success can only promise a fundamental change in lifestyle.

The balance problem

Obesity is primarily an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, what exactly is leading to this disparity?

Firstly, the energy requirements of the organism which is hardly influenced, in some people less. This may be the basal metabolic rate (energy consumption in complete peace) are, which may be lower than in lean people, according to studies. This seems to be genetically determined, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Women and older people have a lower basal metabolic rate than men and young people. In addition, the thermogenesis is lower in the food from burning. This means that is lower than in lean people through the digestive energy consumed and energy for heat production. This may be due to the altered carbohydrate utilization by insulin resistance.

On the other hand, the energy consumption is low. By physical activity can be increased, the energy requirement. The basal metabolic rate is slightly increased in this way, as more muscle is present. Also can be achieved by the intensity of the activity, a high additional power consumption.

By moving and more energy can be consumed as a compensation for energy absorption can be achieved. However, the main problem is overeating. It does not matter whether it is a too high carb or high fat foods. Alcohol promotes weight gain not only high energy but also as an inhibitor of fat burning (fat oxidation).